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A Sting Operation is an operation designed to catch a person committing a crime by means of deception. A complicated confidence game planned and executed with great care. The word sting derives its origin from American usage to mean a police undercover operation designed to ensnare criminals. The word sting is a synonym for the expression set a trap to catch a crook and this article uses the term in that sense. In more refined terms, it can be called Investigative Journalism or Undercover Journalism. Sting Operation is an information-gathering exercise; it looks for facts that are not easy to obtain by simple requests and searches, or those that are actively being concealed, suppressed or distorted. An informed citizenry the bedrock of a democracy, holding the government accountable through voting and participation requires investigative journalism which cannot sustain itself on asymmetric dissemination of information. In many cases, the subjects of the reporting wish the matters under scrutiny to remain undisclosed. Among the most popular programmes in India, are those reporting on corruption and misdeeds of politicians and government officials.
TYPES OF STING OPERATIONS IN INDIA
Sting Operations are undertook with a view to look into the working of the govt. or to see whether the acts of any individual is against the public order. On the basis of the purpose Sting Operations can be classified as positive and negative. Positive Sting Operation is one which results in the interest of the society, which pierces the veils of the working of the government. It is carried out in the public interest. Due to positive sting operation society is benefited because it makes government responsible and accountable. It leads to the transparency in the government. On the other hand negative sting operations do not benefit the society, but they do harm the society and its individuals. It unnecessarily violates the privacy of the individual without any beneficial results to the society. These types of Sting operations if allowed then it will hamper the freedom of the individuals and restricts their rights. Here are some examples which we can distinguish as positive and negative sting operations.
1. Positive Sting Operations: Positive Sting Operation is one which results in the interest of the society, which pierces the veils of the working of the government. It is carried out in the public interest. Due to positive sting operation society is benefited because it makes government responsible and accountable. It leads to the transparency in the government.
# Sting operations on ultra-sound centers carried out by the Health officers in Karnataka for serious enforcement’’ of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act which bans sex determination of foetuses and consequent abortion of female ones to stop female foeticide.
# The Ministry (by the Cable Television Networks Regulation Act and Programme Code), has prohibited the transmission of Cineworld channel for 30 days for showing objectionable content. Because it offended good taste and decency and it was obscene and likely to corrupt public morality and was not suited for unrestricted public exhibition
# An operation by an online news site called Tehelka to catch top politicians and army officers taking bribes from journalists posing as businessmen.
# An operation in which a journalist posing as a struggling actress met actor Shakti Kapoor, who promised in the televised footage that his secretary would introduce her to movie producers and directors.
2. Negative Sting Operations: Negative sting operations do not benefit the society, but they do harm the society and its individuals. It unnecessarily violates the privacy of the individual without any beneficial results to the society. These types of Sting operations if allowed then it will hamper the freedom of the individuals and restricts their rights. Instances over the years have shown that though sting operations do expose corruption in some cases, sometimes they seriously violate the rules of journalism in the pursuit of profit and short-term sensationalism.
# The Delhi High Court on Friday, 7th September, 2007, issued notices to the Delhi government and city police after taking suo motu cognisance of media reports alleging that a sting operation carried out by a TV channel, which claimed to have exposed a sex racket run by a government school teacher Uma Khurana, for allegedly luring her pupils into prostitution has now been revealed to be completely fabricated and was fake and distorted.
# The Supreme Court on Wednesday, 7th February, 2007, issued notices to a private news channel and its reporter for carrying out a sting operation carried out in the year 2004, which allegedly showed a non-bailable warrant could be procured against any person by paying a hefty amount in the court.
These incidents are an example of how a sting operation can go wrong and become an exercise in trapping an innocent person. India TV’s chief editor, Rajat Sharma, said that there was no violation of privacy in exposing such matters as political corruption or the trading of jobs for sex in Bollywood, a practice known in movie and theatrical business lore as the casting couch. If you are serious about exposing certain social evils, there is no other option but to use sting operations.
DO WE REALLY NEED STING OPERATIONS?
The media plays an important role in a democratic society. It acts as the fourth institute outside the Government. Sting operations are methods of uncovering information. Although, the Indian Constitution does not expressly mention the liberty of the press, it is evident that the liberty of the press is included in the freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1) (a). Various Constitutions have guaranteed free press or media as a fundamental right. Freedom of press is a special right under art. 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India, 1950 but it has certain restrictions. The democratic credentials are judged by the extent of freedom the media enjoys in a particular state. Further the media has a right to impart the information to the public. Freedom of speech includes freedom to communicate, advertise, publish or propagate ideas and the dissemination of information. Furthermore Art. 19(1) also incorporates within itself right to receive information about any event, happening or incident etc. The heart of journalism has to be public interest and Sting operations, serve public interest.
In Romesh Thappar v. State of Madras Court said, …. The public interest of freedom of discussion (of which the freedom of press is one aspect) stems from the requirement that members of a democratic society should be sufficiently informed so that they may influence intelligently the decisions which may affect themselves. ….In some the fundamental principle involved here is the peoples’ right to know.
This concept of peoples’ right to know, which was found to be so essential for democracy, was located by the Court in Article 19(1)(a) in Bennett Coleman and Co. v. Union of India observing thus:
“Although Article 19(1)(a) does not mention the freedom of the press, it is settled view of the Court that freedom of speech and expression includes freedom of the press and circulation.”
The Court held:
Press has a fundamental right to express itself; the community has a right to be supplied with information; and the Government has a duty to educate the people within the limits of its resources.
Justice Mathews ruled in the case of State of UP v. Raj Narain, The people of this country have a right to know every public act, everything that is done in a public way by their public functionaries. Their right to know is derived from the concept of freedom of speech.
In S.P. Gupta v. Union of India, No democratic Government can survive without accountability and the basic postulate of accountability is that people should have the information about the working of the Government.
In Prabha Dutt v. Union of India the Supreme Court upheld the right claimed by the press to interview prisoners that the right claimed by the Press was not the right to express any particular view or opinion but right to means of information through the medium of interview of the prisoners.
In Indian Express Newspapers (Bombay) Private Ltd. and Ors v. Union of India and Ors. , the Court emphasized that the freedom of press and information were vital for the realization of human rights. The court relied upon the Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
WHY NO TO STING OPERATIONS?
With great power comes great responsibility, therefore the freedom under Article 19(1)(a) is correlative with the duty not to violate any law. Every institution is liable to be abused, and every liberty, if left unbridled, may lead to disorder and anarchy. Television channels in a bid to increase their Trade Related Practices (TRP’s) ratings are resorting to sensationalized journalism. Sting operations have now become the order of the day. The carrying out of a sting operation may be an expression of the right to free press but it caries with it an indomitable duty to respect the privacy of others.
In Time v. Hill the U.S. Supreme Court said: The constitutional guarantee of freedom of speech to press is not for the benefit of the press so much as for the benefit of all the people. The same principle was followed by Mathew, J. in Bennett Coleman and Co. v. Union of India.
Article 19(2) - An Exception to Article 19(1): It is however pertinent to mention that, freedom of speech and expression of press is not absolute but is qualified by certain clearly defined limitations under Article 19(2) in the interests of the public.
In Romesh Thappar v. State of Madras, and Brij Bhushan v. State of Delhi the Court firmly expressed its view that there could not be any kind of restriction on the freedom of speech and expression other than those mentioned in Art 19(2) and thereby made it clear that there could not be any interference with that freedom in the name of public interest even when Clause (2) of Article 19 was subsequently substituted under the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951 by a new clause which permitted the imposition of reasonable restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression of media.
Against Right to Privacy: This is the most burning issue in the entire world today. Article 12 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) defines Right to Privacy as-No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence not to attack upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to protection of law against such interference or attack.
Article 19(2) of the Constitution of India provides for nothing in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
'Freedom of Press' has been held to be a part of the Fundamental Right of 'Freedom of Speech and expression' guaranteed by article 19(1) (a) to the citizens of India. Is had been held that 'Freedom of Press' is necessary for exercise of fundamental freedom of citizens of 'speech and expression'. And so 'Freedom of Press' cannot be termed as unconstitutional and void. And as the Constitution says this can only be exercised till it does not harm the decency/morality of a person.
The individual who is the subject of a press or television ‘item’ has his or her personality, reputation or career dashed to the ground after the media exposure. He too has a fundamental right to live with dignity and respect and a right to privacy guaranteed to him under Article 21 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court, Kharak Singh v. State of UP held that right to privacy is inherent under Article 21. The Delhi High Court observed that right to privacy that flows from Article 21 couldn’t be invoked against private entities. It can not be denied that it is of practical importance that a precarious balance between the fundamental right to expression and the right to ones privacy be maintained. ‘Right to Privacy’ has ceased to have any pragmatic value where ‘sting operations’ define the order of the day. The right to privacy is an alleged human right, which may restrain both government and private party action that threatens the privacy of individuals. It has been recognized as a fundamental right by the Hon’ble SC under Article 21.
The Supreme Court in R. Rajagopal and Another v. State of Tamil Nadu and Others are true reminiscence of the limits of freedom of press with respect to the right to privacy:
A citizen has a right to safeguard the privacy of his own, his family, marriage, procreation, motherhood, child bearing and education among other matters. No one can publish anything concerning the above matters without his consent - whether truthful or otherwise and whether laudatory or critical. If he does so, he would be violating the right to privacy of the person concerned and would be liable in an action for damages. Position may, however, be different, if a person voluntarily thrusts himself into controversy or voluntarily invites or raises a controversy.
In another landmark judgment which addressed the issue of privacy was the telephone tapping case- People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India the Court observed:
The right to privacy by itself has not been identified under the Constitution. As a concept it may be too wide and moralistic to define it judicially. Whether right to privacy can be claimed or has been infringed in a given case would depend on the facts of the said case….
Against Public Morality: There is the classic ethical problem that haunts all sting operations: can you hold somebody responsible for a crime that he would not have committed if you hadn’t encouraged him? The essence of all entrapment is that you promise a man a reward for breaking the law and then, apprehend him when he takes the bait. All sting operations involve making people commit crimes that they would not otherwise have committed and are therefore immoral. It is against the public morality and decency and hence falls within the purview of Article 19 (2).
The 17th Law Commission in its 200th report has made recommendations to the Centre to enact a law to prevent the media from interfering with the privacy rights of the individuals.
PROBLEMS WITH STING OPERATIONS
The classic ethical problem that haunts all sting operations: - can you hold somebody responsible for a crime that he would not have committed if you hadn’t encouraged him? The essence of all entrapment is that you promise a man a reward for breaking the law and then, apprehend him when he takes the bait. A defence that can be taken by the accused that the act had been committed as a result of inducement, and which he (the accused) did not intend himself to commit, or, in cases where lack of consent constitutes the offence, such as rape, that the consent had been implied by the inducement, where because of the ‘trap’ laid down for the accused, the impression given was that an offence had not been committed.
Fundamental rights can’t be enforced against the individual or private entity: When Maneka Gandhi sued Khushwant Singh over certain references to her in his autobiography Truth, Love and a Little Malice saying that it was a violation of her privacy, she lost the case. It is precisely because of this lack of legislation that we have numerous Sing Operations taking place almost daily thereby obtruding upon individual privacy. However, despite the growing invasion of privacy, there is no Indian legislation that directly protects the privacy rights of individuals against individuals.
Conflict of Laws: Although on one hand, the Constitution confers the fundamental right of freedom of the press, Article 105 (2) provides certain restrictions on the publications of the proceedings in Parliament. In the famous Searchlight Case , the Supreme Court held that, the publication by a newspaper of certain parts of the speech of members in the House, which were ordered to be expunged by the Speaker constituted a breach of privilege.
Another major problem which we face today is against whom the sting operation is allowed? Some are of the opinion that it must be allowed against the public servants. The definition of Public Servant is given in 2(c) of The Prevention of Corruption Act. Again a problem comes that can we have sting operation against the public servants when they are not in their course of duty? There are so many problems which arise because we do not have proper legislation. We can say the root of all these problems is the lack of legislation first and any thing after.
They Do Not Reduce or Prevent Recurring Crime Problems: Few scientific studies of stings have shown that particular crimes were prevented long term. Where the relevant data were collected, it is commonly shown that the targeted crime was reduced as a result of the sting, but for only a limited period—at best, three months to a year. In fact, since most studies showing any extended crime reduction benefits of sting operations have also reviewed other police responses used with the operations, it cannot be concluded that stings, on their own, solve a recurring crime problem.
They May Increase Crime: A number of well-conducted studies have shown that, contrary to expectations, sting operations may actually increase the targeted crime because they provide new opportunities to offenders to commit the crime when they use decoys, baits, and the actual selling or receipt of stolen goods.29 Furthermore, when police assume undercover roles, such as drug dealer, they may themselves be victimized, thus making possible new crimes that were not the sting’s target. This raises a serious ethical issue concerning the role of police (and government generally). The police role is to reduce crime, not increase it. If sting operations are found to increase crime, they are surely very difficult to justify, regardless of the benefits described above. However, at least one careful study found that sting operations did not increase crime in the two projects studied [PDF]. 30 This suggests that there is no hard-and-fast rule concerning the facilitating effects of stings on crime rates, and that the possible effects of each sting operation may be specific to crime type and location.
They May Be Deemed Unethical : The ethical deficit of sting operations their detractors most often put forward is that their use of deception is simply another form of lying, and lying is morally wrong, period. And is it ethically worse if the deceiver holds a government office? Police defend their actions on two main grounds: (a) the moral and social benefits of a successful sting operation far exceed the ethical cost of using deception; and (b) citizens have given the police the right to use a degree of coercion to protect the community, and deception is “soft” coercion compared with other types police may use, such as tough interrogation techniques (which themselves may include lying and deceiving the offender).
The Government May Overreach: Is it the government’s role to construct enticements and situations that encourage all citizens to commit a crime? The studies of selling stolen goods, for example, in bars and other places, have found a remarkably high proportion of ordinary people prepared to buy stolen articles, people who, had they not been provided the opportunity to do so, would not have committed the crime. Thus there is a very strong potential for the government to overreach. Indeed, there is a strong incentive to do so, given the positive publicity that is likely to follow the sting operation, even if no offenders were convicted.
There are Privacy Issues: The invasion of privacy is much greater in sting operations because police surreptitiously collect far more information about non offenders as well as offenders, and in many instances, where there are no offenders at all until the sting operation reaches a critical point. Do citizens have a right not to be spied on? This is an old ethical problem in policing that is intensified by sting operations that rely almost entirely on these tactics.
POSITION OF STING OPERATION IN INDIA
In India we have no specific law which governs such operation and also we have no judicial pronouncements till today which guides such operations or the acts of the media. But a person can go to the court under different laws to protect his rights and freedom. We have wiretapping which is a part of sting operation is regulated under the Telegraph Act of 1885. In 1996 decision by the Supreme Court which ruled that wiretaps are a serious invasion of an individual’s privacy The Court also laid out guidelines for wiretapping by the government, which define who can tap phones and under what circumstances. Only the Union Home Secretary, or his counterpart in the states, can issue an order for a tap. The government is also required to show that the information sought cannot to be obtained through any other means. The Court mandated the development of a high-level committee to review the legality of each wiretap. Tapped phone calls are not accepted as primary evidence in Indian courts.
Apart from the common law, the Supreme Court has recognized a constitutional origin as well. So, firstly, a private action for damages may lie for an unlawful invasion of privacy under The Law of Torts. These sting operations also violates right to privacy which according to the Supreme Court is guaranteed under Article 21- right to life and personal liberty. As we are provide that the freedom of expression guarantee in Article 19(1)(a) is not absolute therefore the constitution provides with Article 19(2) which protects the public interest morality and decency. A person who welcomes media interest in his life will not be able to claim a right to privacy as easily as a ‘private individual’. There is vast room for interpretation, especially with terms such as ‘private affairs’ and ‘public interest’; and interpretation will be made by the regulatory authority even though the onus on proving that a particular publication was in public interest lies with the media house. Undoubtedly, the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court will certainly influence interpretation The Apex Court has always upheld the importance of an informed citizenry. A ‘sting operation’ with a genuine motive to create awareness of wrongdoing, cannot be proscribed or prohibited.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
Any action should be judged by its intent and its outcome. The efficacy of sting operation in uncovering misdeeds can never be undermined. If used as a tool of establishing public order and bringing to light the misdeeds and misdemeanours of corrupt persons, then the role of sting operation as a cleansing tool should be welcomed. It, no doubt, brings to light invaluable evidence that can help the judiciary in deciding with a fair degree of certainty and swiftness. It can act as a deterrent for corrupt public servants as well. Before doing wrongful deeds, such as taking a bribe, they will be more careful, as the advent of technology has now ensured that a sting operation can be conducted in such a manner that it can catch the target completely unaware. Thus, I find that as an aid to collecting evidence and as a social deterrent, a sting operation has scope if conducted with restraint and accountability.
· Unfortunately, no law regulates sting operations in India, thus making it prone to misuse. Such operations can be conducted with the sole purpose of tarnishing the image of an individual. With state of the art technology being used nowadays, we may not be able to distinguish a real sting operation from a concocted one. Once telecast, it creates such an indelible impression before the naive and gullible public, that the reputation of the framed person gets tarnished forever, even if at a later stage, it is found out that the operation was fabricated.
· Without any law in place regulating sting operation, the question of invasion of privacy will always be under discussion. Though one can initiate a private action for damages for an unlawful invasion of privacy under torts, it has to be accepted that this phenomenon is a serious threat to privacy. Everybody has the right to lead his life in his terms and unlawful transgression into public life can never be supported.
· Another limitation of the sting operation is that it is being increasingly misused by many television channels to increase viewership. There being no law, there is no effective regulation. Thus the whole purpose gets defeated. Employing sting operations for political vendetta is another pertinent issue. It is not unusual to employ reporters or others to conduct stings for destroying the political career of any particular individual.
· On the other side of the coin is the issue of police harassment against any well-meaning person who has done operation with honesty and purpose. People in high offices, if they see their reputation is at stake, often use the State machinery to harass, intimidate and coerce journalists, to prevent such footage being produced before the court as a piece of evidence.
It would also be interesting to find out whether evidence from sting operations actually speed up the judicial process or helps in unearthing the real truth and aid in quicker conviction. A classic example is the Narada Sting Operation Case which happened 6 years ago. The probe by CBI, ED, and the Parliamentary Ethics Committee is still on and several PILs have also been lodged. But even after so many years, we are yet to see the case come to its logical conclusion.
Guideline or legislation, if framed, should address the following specific areas:
· The agency conducting the sting operation should see to it that it is being done in public service and there should be elaborate mechanisms to ensure the same.
· Every sting operation should address the issue of individual privacy and freedom of the individual.
· Strict penal provisions should be there for punishing individuals and agencies that conduct sting operations with political and ulterior motives or for the purpose of increasing viewership of any channel or readership of a newspaper.
· Similarly, penal provisions should also be there if it is found out that a sting operation has been conducted with the sole purpose of tarnishing the image and reputation of an individual.
· There should be a regulatory body within the media fraternity to control all aspects of sting operations. Since any outside regulation would amount to the interference of freedom of the press, it is desirable that either the Press Council of India or any other body be entrusted with this responsibility.
· Information collected from sting operations should be made admissible in court but only if it is found that the said information is not concocted and not gathered for an ulterior motive.
RULES OF REPORTING IN STING
The rules are as following:
• The channel must convince others that the sting operation has been carried out in and for the best interest of the public and people at large in this country.
• While producing any news bulletin or the news related current affairs, no channel is allowed to expose the personal life of any person.
• No channel is allowed to record in any form, the conversation with any person, without his/her prior permission.
• While broadcasting any such sting operation, it will have to be withheld or stopped, if any objection is raised by the concerned or any involved person or party.
• Both the parties have the right to approach the court of law at any given time but prior to that, the transmission or telecast of the concerned item or program will have to be stopped.
The Union Information and Broadcasting Ministry must favour the introduction of a clause to address Sting Operations in the Broadcasting Bill. The Ministry must make a clear distinction between stories that amount to an invasion of privacy and those which expose corruption or have political implications. However, Sting Operations which expose corruption and tell stories with political implications will be allowed, as any attempt to proceed against them would be seen as an effort to stifle the media. Sting operations raise serious ethical issues that the media rarely consider while carrying them out. The Indian media use the expressions “undercover investigation” and “sting operation” as if they were one and the same thing. There is an irony in the conflation of these terms because in this country, undercover investigations are almost always sting operations.
B.A. (Hons.) Journalism
Batch of 2022
Lady Shri Ram College for Women