Apr 9, 2018

तिनका तिनका : जेलों में बेकाबू 'भीड़' और सुप्रीम कोर्ट की जायज चिंताएं


मार्च के आखिरी हफ्ते में सुप्रीम कोर्ट में मौजूद रहकर भारत की 1382 जेलों की अमानवीय स्थिति पर हो रही सुनवाई का हिस्सा बनना बहुत खास था. एक तरफ आंखों के सामने खंडपीठ की जायज चिंताएं थीं तो दूसरी तरफ मेरे हाथों में रखे वे कागज थे जो आंकड़ों से पटे पड़े थे और मन में वे सच थे जो अलग-अलग जेलों में दौरे के दौरान मैंने खुद देखे थे. तिनका तिनका ने भारतीय जेलों को लेकर जो देखा, उस पर देश की सर्वोच्च अदालत की चिंताएं देखकर यह अहसास पुख्ता हुआ कि आगे सड़क लंबी है. लेकिन यह विश्वास भी हुआ कि देश की सर्वोच्च अदालत के सीधे दखल से अब कोई ठोस रास्ता जरूर निकलेगा.
इस समय देश की ज्यादातर जेलों में अपनी निर्धारित क्षमता से कहीं ज्यादा कैदी हैं. नेशनल क्राइम रिकॉर्ड्स ब्‍यूरो की 2015 की रिपोर्ट के मुताबिक भारतीय जेलों में क्षमता के मुकाबले 114.4 फीसदी ज्‍यादा कैदी बंद हैं और कुछ मामलों में तो यह तादाद छह सौ फीसदी तक है. ऐसे में हाल ही में न्यायमूर्ति एमबी लोकुर और न्यायमूर्ति दीपक गुप्ता की खंडपीठ ने तमाम राज्यों और केंद्रशासित प्रदेशों के पुलिस महानिदेशकों (जेल) को चेतावनी दी है कि जेलों में क्षमता से ज्यादा भीड़ के मुद्दे से निपटने के लिए अदालत के पहले के आदेश के मुताबिक एक कार्य योजना जमा करने में नाकाम रहने की वजह से उनके खिलाफ अदालत की अवमानना का मामला चलाया जा सकता है.
खंडपीठ ने इस बात पर जोर दिया कि कैदियों के मानवाधिकारों के प्रति राज्य सरकारों का रवैया लचर और गैर-जिम्मेदाराना है. विचाराधीन समीक्षा समितियां भी अपनी जिम्मेदारी को गंभीरता से नहीं निभा सकी हैं. हर जिले में गठित यह समिति विचाराधीन या सजा पूरी कर लेने वाले या जमानत पाने वाले कैदियों की रिहाई के मामलों की समीक्षा करती है लेकिन यह समीक्षा भी स्थिति में सुधार लाने में कारगर नहीं रही है.
अदालत ने राज्यों व केंद्रशासित प्रदेशों को अब 8 मई तक अपनी रिपोर्ट पेश करने के लिए कहा है. सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने इससे पहले भी छह मई, 2016 और तीन अक्तूबर, 2016 को जेलों की भीड़ कम करने के लिए एक कार्ययोजना बनाने का निर्देश दिया था. अदालत ने उनसे 31 मार्च, 2017 तक इसे जमा करने को कहा था लेकिन किसी भी राज्य ने ऐसा नहीं किया. ऐसे में अब इस आदेश पर अमल न होने पर सीधेतौर पर अवमानना का मामला बन सकता है.
एक तरफ जेलें भीड़ से उलझ रही हैं और दूसरी तरफ इनमें जेल कर्मचारियों की भारी कमी भी बनी हुई है. नेशनल लीगल सर्विस अथॉरिटी (नालसा) की ओर से पेश रिपोर्ट के मुताबिक देशभर की जेलों में कर्मचारियों की अनुमोदित क्षमता 77,230 है लेकिन इनमें से 31 दिसंबर, 2017 तक 24,588 यानी 30 फीसदी से भी ज्यादा पद खाली थे. ऐसे में सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने पुलिस महानिदेशकों (जेल) से खाली पदों को भरने की हिदायत दी है.
इन चिंताओं के बीच अब सारा दारोमदार जेलों पर ही है. ताज्जुब की बात यह है कि मानवाधिकार की तमाम कहानियों के बावजूद भारत में जेलों को लेकर अब तक न तो गंभीरता का माहौल बना है और न ही सुधारपरक और समय-सीमा परक योजनाएं बनी हैं. लगता है कि इसके मूल में एक बड़ी वजह राजनीतिक इच्छाशक्ति की ही कमी है क्योंकि जेलें वोट नहीं लातीं.
जेलों की स्थिति से संबंधित मामले में सुनवाई में सहायता के लिए सुप्रीम कोर्ट की ओर से नियुक्त सलाहकार गौरव अग्रवाल और खुली जेलों पर काम कर रहीं स्मिता चक्रवर्ती के सहयोग से जेलें चर्चा में तो हैं लेकिन जेलों के सामाजिक या राजनीतिक चिंता के दायरे में आने में अभी समय लगेगा.

Apr 6, 2018

Talk On Diet and Nutrition By Dr. Sunita Roy Chowdhury



 The Department of Physical Education at Lady Shri Ram College For Women organized a session on “Diet and Nutrition” with Dr. Sunita Roy Chowdhury, Chief Dietician, BLK Super Specialty Hospital on 25th January 2018. She has 25+ years of experience as a clinical nutritionist and is founder of ‘Healthy Nudges’, a health site being managed by experienced professionals currently. She talked about various diet requirements according to different age groups, benefits of pulses and importance of detoxification and about how our body requirements varies with the changing environment, thereby emphasizing on the improvement of the health and quality of life through dietary and nutritional assessment, counseling and education.



Focusing on the current status of the awareness of ‘Nutrition’ in the general masses and its aspect in the daily routine, she pointed that it is much less than it should be in India. All the National and International players from the college put up their various question regarding intake of both liquids and solids both during and off competitions. A proper diet schedule was provided by Dr Sunita Chowdhary for the same. During the interactive session, the importance of various sources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals etc. along with their required intake was discussed.


New insights about breaking various food myths and outlook towards need of healthy diet among young sports athletes were also explored. The players were recommended with handy food items to stay well fed and hydrated throughout the day. Effects of excessive use of tea and coffee, detoxification, unhealthy eating habits like binge eating and drinking were also discussed. The talk ended with a discourse on psychological well-being of today’s youth whose attention is driven more towards their weight rather than health which results in feeding the disease rather than preventing it.

By Ishita Sharma
Department of Journalism
LSR

Apr 2, 2018

Marginalised Communities: Children and their representation in media

Abstract
Medias presence in childrens lives is vehemently ubiquitous. Today, Indian children spend almost six hours a day with media. The potentially negative consequences of childrens media consumption receive a lot of attention. Yet medias unique power and reach can also be used to educate children and enrich their lives. Television, which once dominated childrens media consumption habits, is now joined by computers, video game players, cell phones and other connected devices. The result is that children today are completely immersed in media experiences from a very young age.

Introduction
Media is everywhere. TV, Internet, computer and video games all vie for our children's attention. Information on this page can help parents understand the impact media has in our children's lives, while offering tips on managing time spent with various media. Today's children are spending an average of seven hours a day on entertainment media, including televisions, computers, phones and other electronic devices. To help kids make wise media choices, parents should monitor their media diet. Parents can make use of established ratings systems for shows, movies and games to avoid inappropriate content, such as violence, explicit sexual content or glorified tobacco and alcohol use.
Studies have shown that excessive media use can lead to attention problems, school difficulties, sleep and eating disorders, and obesity. In addition, the Internet and cell phones can provide platforms for illicit and risky behaviors.
By limiting screen time and offering educational media and non-electronic formats such as books, newspapers and board games, and watching television with their children, parents can help guide their children's media experience. Putting questionable content into context and teaching kids about advertising contributes to their media literacy.
Taking into account this great amount of engagement & rising violence against children receiving media coverage, all journalists and media professionals have a duty to maintain the highest ethical and professional standards and should promote within the industry the widest possible dissemination of information about the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and its implications for the exercise of independent journalism.
Media organisations should regard violation of the rights of children and issues related to children's safety, privacy, security, their education, health and social welfare and all forms of exploitation as important questions for investigations and public debate. Children have an absolute right to privacy, the only exceptions being those explicitly set out in these guidelines.
Journalistic activity which touches on the lives and welfare of children should always be carried out with appreciation of the vulnerable situation of children.

Even the journalistic coverage and subsequent exposure of the Swat Valley encounter experienced first hand by Malala Yousafzai falls in the grey space of such vulnerability that children are put in, themselvesThe journalistic question raised by Malala Yousafzai's tragedy is this: when parents make their children vulnerable by placing them in the media spotlight, are journalists ever obligated to act in loco parentis and exercise restraint? And if so when and how? In Malala's case, at least, there's no easy answer. Perhaps the extensive coverage of Malala helped put her at risk. But it also highlighted her passionate and courage and the brutality of the system she was fighting against. Whether that trade-off was worth it may depend, in the end, on whether she survives 

Guidelines

Journalists and media organisations shall strive to maintain the highest standards of ethical conduct in reporting children's affairs and, in particular, they shall
    strive for standards of excellence in terms of accuracy and sensitivity when reporting on issues involving children;
    avoid programming and publication of images which intrude upon the media space of children with information which is damaging to them;
    avoid the use of stereotypes and sensational presentation to promote journalistic material involving children;
    consider carefully the consequences of publication of any material concerning children and shall minimise harm to children;
    guard against visually or otherwise identifying children unless it is demonstrably in the public interest;
    give children, where possible, the right of access to media to express their own opinions without inducement of any kind;
    ensure independent verification of information provided by children and take special care to ensure that verification takes place without putting child informants at risk;
    avoid the use of sexualised images of children;
    use fair, open and straightforward methods for obtaining pictures and, where possible, obtain them with the knowledge and consent of children or a responsible adult, guardian or carer;
    verify the credentials of any organisation purporting to speak for or to represent the interests of children.
    not make payment to children for material involving the welfare of children or to parents or guardians of children unless it is demonstrably in the interest of the child.
Journalists should put to critical examination the reports submitted and the claims made by Governments on implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in their respective countries.
Media should not consider and report the conditions of children only as events but should continuously report the process likely to lead or leading to the occurrence of these events.
  
Principles
For the benefit for children themselves, how events including them are covered, how events are presented to them; 4 basic ground Principles were laid down to keep children both informed yet at the same time not deter their development as individuals. Why does this separation become important for children? It is because they are directly affected by the things they see on the screens. Children are neither mentally developed enough to question things or rationalise fantasy from reality nor hold the mental grit to distinguish right from wrong(morals & ethical dilemmas); any biased information or ethically wrong or immoral information can affect them negatively which is antithetical to their development.

Over the past 30 years there has been extensive research on the relationship between televised violence and violent behavior among youth. Longitudinal, cross-sectional, and experimental studies have all confirmed this correlation. Televised violence and the presence of television in American households have increased steadily over the years. In 1950, only 10% of American homes had a television.Today 99% of homes have televisions. In fact, more families have televisions than telephones. Over half of all children have a television set in their bedrooms. This gives a greater opportunity for children to view programs without parental supervision. Studies reveal that children watch approximately 28 hours of television a week, more time than they spend in school. The typical American child will view more than 200,000 acts of violence, including more than 16,000 murders before age 18. Television programs display 812 violent acts per hour; children's programming, particularly cartoons, displays up to 20 violent acts hourly. Schools, hospitals, and community groups may hold free workshops on topics such as taking control of kids' TV watching. They can make a difference in the way media impacts on their kids. If they limit, supervise, and share media experiences with children, they have much to gain. When parents help their children understand how their media choices affect them, they actively control their media use rather than giving in to the influence of media without thinking about it.

      Children have an absolute right to privacy. The highest ethical and professional standards in reporting and covering cases of children must be observed such that in all publicity concerning children, the best interests of the child shall be the primary concern.
      The childs dignity must be respected at all times.
      Children have the right to be heard. Access to media by children should be encouraged.
      The mass media is a partner in the promotion of child rights and the prevention of child delinquency, and is encouraged to relay consistent messages through a balanced approach. Journalistic activity which touches on the lives and welfare of children must be carried out with sensitivity and appreciation of the vulnerable situation of children, so that children are not re-victimized or re-traumatized.

Bibliography/Sources



By Shweta Kaul, Second Year,
BA Journalism (H)
LSR