Sep 24, 2017

Story of Prasar Bharati

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Prasar Bharati is India's largest public broadcasting agency. It is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and comprises Doordarshan Television Network and All India Radio, which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The Parliament of India passed the Prasar Bharati Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but it was not enacted until 15 September 1997. Shashi Sekhar Vembati is the current chairperson of Prasar Bharati.


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Shashi Sekhar Vembhati
The Prasar Bharati Act stipulates general superintendence, direction and management of affairs of the Corporation vests in Prasar Bharati Board which may exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation.
Prasar Bharati Board consists of:
·         Chairman
·         One Executive Member
·         One Member (Finance)
·         One Member (Personnel)
·         Six Part-time Members
·         Director-General (Akashvani), ex officio
·         Director-General (Doordarshan), ex officio
·         One representative of the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), to be nominated by that Ministry and
·         Two representatives of the employees of the Corporation, of whom one shall be elected by the engineering staff from amongst themselves and one shall be elected by the other employee from amongst themselves.
The President of India appoints Chairman and the other Members, except the ex officio members, nominated member and the elected members.

Prasar Bharati Act
The Prasar Bharati Act provides for establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation, to be known as Prasar Bharati, to define its composition, functions and powers. The Act grants autonomy to All India Radio and Doordarshan, which were previously under government control. The Act received assent of President of India on 12 September 1990 after being unanimously passed by Parliament. It was finally implemented in November 1997. By the Prasar Bharati Act, all property, assets, debts, liabilities, payments of money due, all suits and legal proceedings involving Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan were transferred to Prasar Bharati.
Why was there a need for Broadcasting Autonomy?
For over three decades beginning with Chanda committee report in 1966 and continuing through the reports of the Verghese Committee (Akash Bharti) in 1978 and the Joshi Committee in 1985, recommendations for broadcasting reforms were put forth. This need for autonomy was deeply felt soon after the emergeny period. As a result, the Prasar Bharati Act (1990) was formed by the government. It was the first instance of a government voluntarily bringing legislation to free the media from its control which may set in motion a chain of events in the country bringing in revolutionary changes in the field. Apart from safeguarding the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully and objectively, Prasar Bharati was also required to pay attention to special fields such as education, agriculture, development, women empowerment etc.
Objectives of Prasar Bharati Corporation
The major objectives of the Prasar Bharati Corporation as laid out in the Prasar Bharati Act, 1990 are as follows:
·         Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the Constitution.
·         Safeguarding the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully and objectively on all matters of public interest, national or international, and presenting a fair and balanced flow of information including contrasting views without advocating any opinion or ideology of its own.
·         Paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health and family welfare and science and technology.
·         Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and languages of the various regions of the country by broadcasting appropriate programmes.
·         Providing adequate coverage to sports and games so as to encourage healthy competition and the spirit of sportsmanship.
·         Providing appropriate programmes keeping in view the special needs of the youth.
·         Informing and stimulating the national consciousness in regard to the status and problems of women and paying special attention to the upliftment of women.
·         Promoting social justice and combating exploitation, inequality and such evils as untouchability and advancing the welfare of the weaker sections of the society.
·         Safeguarding the rights of the working classes and advancing their welfare.
·         Serving the rural and weaker sections of the people and those residing in border regions, backward or remote areas.
·         Providing suitable programmes keeping in view the special needs of the minorities and tribal communities.
·         Taking special steps to protect the interests of children, the blind, the aged, the handicapped and other vulnerable sections of the people.
·         Promoting national integration by broadcasting in a manner that facilitates communication in the languages in India; and facilitating the distribution of regional broadcasting services in every State in the languages of that State.
·         Providing comprehensive broadcast coverage through the choice of appropriate technology and the best utilisation of the broadcast frequencies available and ensuring high quality reception.
·         Promoting research and development activities in order to ensure that radio broadcast and television broadcast technology are constantly updated.

Chanda Committee 1964

     Chanda committee was formed in 1964, when Indira Gandhi was the I&B minister under the chairmanship of A.K. Chanda. The report was submitted in 1967. Their recommendations included separation of TV and radio units, which resulted in the separation of AIR and Doordarshan. It also recommended that programs related to national interest must be broadcasted on priority basis. 
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A.K. Chanda


Verghese Committee 1978


The Janta Government had appointed a Working Group on the autonomy of the Akashwani and Doordarshan in August 1977. The chairman of this committee was B.G. Verghese. The committee submitted its report on February 24, 1978. This committee’s main recommendation was “formation of Akash Bharti or the “National Broadcasting Trust“, both for the AIR and Doordarshan. The committee noted that the people want an independent corporation because, the executive, abetted by a captive parliament, shamelessly misused the Broadcasting during emergency and this must be prevented for all times. 


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B.C. Verghese
This was a bold recommendation of this committee, which wanted substantial “Constitutional Safeguards” for the recommended body. But these recommendations were not even supported by Janta rulers. 
The minister (LK Advani) commented: “The committee has recommended the creation of an independent, constitutional entity, parallel to the Judiciary on which the legislature has no control. No we can not accept it”. 

The result was that the report was rejected. 

PC Joshi Committee 1982

Congress appointed PC Joshi Committee in 1982, whose main term of reference was to prepare a software plan for Doordarshan. But this group also emphasized on the absence of “Functional Freedom” in Prasar Bharati. This committee said that the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting should be reorganized and a separate board on the lines of Railway Board should be created, in which only people with professional experience should get entry. 
So, slowly a consensus developed for a Television Authority of India -as a public trust and under the control of the parliament and officed with only experienced professionals.


 Sam Pitroda Committee 2014

The Prasar Bharati Expert Committee, headed by technocrat Sam Pitroda, submitted its report to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Its main recommendations involved a need for greater autonomy. There were 11 expert groups under this committee:
1. Expert group on Prasar Bharati- Government Relationship
2. Expert group on technology
3. Expert group on Business development
4. Expert group on Finance
5. Expert group on HR and organisation
6. Expert group on programming and content
7. Expert group on Archiving
8. Expert group on Global Initiatives
9. Expert group on presence on social and new emerging media
10.Expert group on Regulatory mechanism
11.Expert group on a comparative analysis of public service broadcasters




 The expert group working for developing a viable model for public service broadcasting in the Indian context included Prof. Vartika Nanda, Head of Department of Journalism, LSR among notable members. 







Recommendations:


  • Amend the Prasar Bharati Act 1990 to give effective freedom to the Prasar Bharati with administrative and financial powers
  •     To give power to Prasar Bharati to frame rules and regulations and hire manpower without going to the government for approval. In other words, Prasar Bharati’s vision must be to become a “genuine public broadcaster” rather than a “government broadcaster”
  •      The public broadcaster should monetize all available assets to enhance funding.
  •   make Direct-To-Home (DTH) signals the primary mode of transmitting content for Doordarshan.
  •      To set up Prasar Bharati Connect (PBC), as the third arm of PSB, apart from Doordarshan and AIR.
  •     Creation of dedicated, multi- platform channels for dissemination of Prasar Bharati archival products.

PRASAR BHARATI OFFICIAL WEBSITE: http://prasarbharati.gov.in/default.aspx

-Compiled by Nimisha Bansal

Sep 22, 2017

Introduction To Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast graphics: all two dimensional visuals especially prepared for the television camera such as studio or title cards, illustrations, maps or charts. Electronically generated titles, charts or animation—even if appearing three dimensional—are also a part of television graphics

Close up: A tight shot that shows a person’s head/face or an object that is about that size.

Cross cutting: Shots from two sequences happening in two different places are cut together in such a way to give the impression they are unfolding at the same time. Used more commonly in movies than in news stories.


Establishing shotlets audience know where we are. This might be the outside of a building or a scene-setting landscape or an overall shot of the place where a part of your story takes place.
Extreme close-up: A very tight detail shot that shows important texture, details or small action.

Jump cut: An unnatural edit where a person or object in the frame suddenly “jumps” from one part of the scene to another. In news video, you should avoid this kind of cut. The way to avoid jump cuts is to shoot with sequences in mind; by having lots of detail shots to choose from; and/or by using the appropriate editing technique described above.

Long shot: a shot in which the person’s entire body fits in the frame.

Master shotsimilar to an establishing shot, it sets characters in their place in the scene and/or in relation to each other. If you are going to cut between shots of multiple people doing different things in one place, this can help the viewer understand where the different people are located within that single physical space.

Medium shot: only a part of the person fits in the frame, but we still see much of the person’s body. This might be from the waist up or from the chest up.

Montage: A series of loosely related close-up shots cut together to give a unified impression of the scene or activity happening in a certain place.

Media as agents of social change




From waking up every morning to the alarm’s tring to sleeping every night after replying to WhatsApp’s last ping, our day is completely occupied by the media.
A cup of tea in one hand and a newspaper in the other is still not a practice of the good old days, it’s a tradition still followed happily and curiously.
The issues neglected, voices unheard, letters unread are not just left but brought to the limelight by the most powerful tool of communication: THE MEDIA.
Living in New Delhi doesn’t mean that one is in isolation from the rest of the world. One has the power of media with oneself to acquire knowledge about every important issue that exists in the global village called the World.
The aim of this article is to bring to notice how issues neglected by the society are being brought into the limelight by the different media platforms.


Let us begin with a recent example of the ICC WOMEN’S WORLD CUP being not only telecasted internationally but also gathering equally wide viewership across the globe. The spectators had big screens put up at every nook and corner of every  street just like they do during ICC MEN’S CRICKET matches. Post match, the team bagged appreciation and invitations from various media channels to make their long struggle known to the world. Names like Smriti Mandhana, and Mithali Raj are not unfamiliar to us anymore. This is how media not only brought them to centre stage but also made them role models and a definite source of inspiration for thousands of girls to follow.
Media creates awareness, and educates people about the various programmes of social importance like BETI BACHAO, BETI PADHAO.
Issues like the menstrual cycle of women which earlier was something not to be talked about in public and work as it was considered a depressant for young girls has now gathered attention to such an extent that the movie PADMAN is all set to hit the box office. Not only one but many issues like lack of toilets for women forcing them to defecate in open have been portrayed clearly in movies like TOILET EK PREM KATHA, which made its place on the big screen. Shubh Mangal Savdhaan, yet another example, appealed to the audiences because of the theme of erectile dysfunction it featured.
Slowly and gradually, we see media, strongly and responsibly, using the platforms to bring in social issues from silence to debates. The stereotype that women are meant for just chores at home is being broken, the notion of washing work being restricted to them is being questioned in present day ads. The taboo that only sons can carry the family business forward is being challenged in the Star Plus campaign NAYI SOCH, through the ad of a sweet shop - GURDEEP SINGH AND DAUGHTERS. Father's name only carries importance is now a talk of the old gone days. Now we even see the legendary cricketers like MS DHONI, VIRAT KOHLI, AJINKYA RAHANE wearing their mother’s name on their jersey, thus carrying forward the NAYI SOCH for women’s empowerment. All these acts bearing strong messages of social awareness are spread by the power of media.
Media is not just restricted to the mainstream platforms but is also providing alternatives in the form of social media for the voice of the people to be raised. We see Citizen Journalism slowly widening it’s roots and making its place in the mainstream media in the form of the buzz word User Generated Content.


The ever loved media form of TV too brings in with it not just the soaps but also shows like SATYAMEV JAYATE which highlight the various unnoticed issues of the society as well as the solutions to them through stories narrated by victims. The government run health campaigns like POLIO DROPS, PRECAUTIONS TO FIGHT DENGUE, and MATERNAL HEALTHCARE are brought to people’s reach only through their frequent featuring in ads throughout the day.
Not just this we see the element of interactivity coming up in the evergreen medium of newspapers via a space for readers to send in their views and content to make them feel like  a part of the newspaper.
The Electronic media has also given birth to a new horizon of E-Governance where the complaints, the queries, and the shortcomings in the various governance fields are addressed  at a fast pace.
A number of examples can be given, such as when help reached out within the  earliest possible time to the passengers in a running train because of a simple tweet to the minister of railways. Railway minister Suresh Prabhu’s Twitter account is an example of it. Another appropriate example that can be quoted is that of the Foreign Ministry where required help is provided to the people globally  , not only to Indians outside the country but also to ailing non-Indians wanting any kind of help outside or in the country.
Not just this, we even have the Prime Minister sharing his ‘MANN KI BAAT’ with the nation on simple issues ranging from class 12th board examination to the complex issue of death of infants in Gorakhpur.
Radio as a medium is preferred for widest reach. The requests of people collected prior to the talk are also addressed. Feedback taken through social media also forms an important part of the monthly interaction with the nation.


Media today can prove the innocent guilty and the guilty innocent. This is the quantum of its power and impact. Media plays a very important role in transforming the country and can help in making the dream of a “NEW INDIA” come true. Remember, just as a shadow follows a human, so does responsibility follow power.
-Shraddha Acharya
Student of Journalism, Lady Shri Ram College for Women


Feb 16, 2017

Tinka Tinka: Unique website on Jails released: Kiren Rijuji: 2016


Art: तिनका तिनका डासना – कथक और ठुमरी के साथ

·        तिनका तिनका डासना – कथक और ठुमरी के साथ

दिल्ली के प्रतिष्ठित इंडिया इंटरनेशनल सेंटर में 6 मार्च को विश्व विख्यात कथक नृत्यांगना शोवना नारायण और ठुमरी गायिका कुमुद दीवान ने अपनी विधाओं – कथक नृत्य और बनारस ठुमरी की बारीकियों के साथ तिनका तिनका डासना के कुछ अंश एकदम नए अंदाज़ में प्रस्तुत किए।


मैनें प्रस्तोता के तौर पर तिनका तिनका डासना से दर्शकों को परिचित करवाया, शोवना नारायण ने उसे नृत्य की गरिमापूर्ण अभिव्यक्ति दी और कुमुद दीवान ने तिनका तिनका डासना के थीम सांग को शास्त्रीय शैली में गाकर गाने को नई ऊंचाई दे दी। इस कार्यक्रम की मुख्य अतिथि गोवा की राज्यपाल श्रीमती मृदुला सिन्हा और वाराणसी के महापौर राम गोपाल मोहल थे और विशिष्ट अतिथि थे- डॉ यामिनी कृष्णमूर्ति- प्रख्यात भरतनाट्यम नृत्यांगना, डॉ शन्नो खुराना- प्रख्यात शास्त्रीय गायिका। इसे भारत सरकार के संस्कृति मंत्रालय ने प्रायोजित किया था। इस कार्यक्रम को कुमुद दीवान फाउंडेशन ने भारत सरकार के संस्कृति मंत्रालय के सहयोग से आयोजित किया गया था। 


Tinka Tinka Dasna: Theme Song